Horticulture is a growth engine for Agriculture sector and the way to attain nutritional security in the state. The population of Rajasthan has increased from 5.65 Crore to 6.85 Crore in last decade which necessitates increasing the production of horticulture crops to meet the growing nutrition demand.
Consumption rate of fruits and vegetables is showing an upward trend because of greater awareness among the people on healthy diet and also increase in purchasing power. This necessitates the farmers to make a shift from traditional farming to commercial cultivation of horticulture crops.
The varied agro climatic conditions favour the cultivation of extensive array of Horticulture crops. Population explosion and increase in urbanization in Rajasthan leads to shrinking of cultivable area. Hence it is necessary for effective utilization of available land and greater efforts had been put forth for enhancing the productivity.
The climatic conditions of Rajasthan allow growing various types of horticulture crops specially the seed spice. Rajasthan is having prominent position in production of seed spices in the country. The contribution of state horticulture crops in the national production is as under:
- 21 % of Country’s Coriander
- 40 % of Country’s Cumin
- 45 % of its Fenugreek
- 16 % of its Garlic
- 24 % of its Fennel
- 21 % of its Ajwain
- Almost all its Psyllium Husk (Isabgol)
- Almost all its Myrtle (Henna)
Rajasthan has made its recognition in production of good quality kinnow, mandarin and aonla. Export quality kinnow produced in the dry and cool climate and is fast becoming favourites of the consumers. Mandarin produced in Rajasthan compete with the best in the market and is suitable for preparation of squash, concentrate and marmalade. Guava, pomegranate, beal, ber and lehsua are the other fruit which have very good potential for cultivation in the harsh climate of the State. This diversity in climatic conditions creates scope to develop following belts of fruit crops in the State:-
- Mandarin- Jhalawar, Kota (Area 24632 Ha. Production 4.45 Lac MT)
- Kinnow- Sriganganagar, Hanumangarh (Area 11803 Ha. Production 1.74 Lac MT)
- Mango -Udaipur, Banswara, Chittorgarh, Dausa, Bhilwara (Area 5435 Ha. Production 0.93 Lac MT)
- Lime-Bharatpur, Pali, Sirohi ,Jaipur (Area 3030 Ha. Production 0.22 Lac MT)
- Pomegranate- Barmer, Jalore, Chittorgarh, Jodhpur (Area 10842 Ha. Production 0.77 Lac MT)
- Guava-Sawai Madhopur, Bharatpur, Bundi, Kota (Area 7493 Ha. Production 0.47 Lac MT)
- Aonla- Ajmer, Jaipur, Chittorgarh , Nagaur (Area 1669 Ha. Production 0.13 Lac MT)
- Ber-Ganganagar, Bharatpur, Jodhpur, Hanumangarh ,Bhilwara(Area 954 Ha. Production 0.09 Lac MT)
- Date-palm- Barmer, Jaisalmer,Bikaner,Hanumangarh,Ganganagar ( Area 577 Ha. & Production 3071 MT)
The State is a significant producer of a variety of vegetable throughout the year and has sizable production of onion, tomato, pea, potato and cucurbit vegetables like watermelon, muskmelon, bittergaurd and roundgaurd. High value and export purpose vegetable like capsicum tomato, cucumber etc are also being grown successfully under green house and shade net house with high- tech cultivation practices. The major pockets of vegetables are as under:
- Onion - Jodhpur, Alwar, Sikar, Nagaur (Area 81794 Ha. Production 13.86 Lac MT)
- Tomato - Jaipur, Ajmer, Sirohi, Tonk, Pali (Area 20504 Ha. Production 2.33 Lac MT)
- Pea – Jaipur , Sikar, Nagaur, Ajmer (Area 11329 Ha. Production 0.28 Lac MT)
- Potato - Dholpur, Bharatpur, Hanumangarh (Area 13593 Ha. Production 2.56 Lac MT)
- Cucurbits - Tonk, Jaipur, Sikar, S. Madhopur
- Cauliflower - Ajmer, Jaipur, Rajsamand, Sikar (Area 9546 Ha. Production 0.47 Lac MT)
- Okra - Bundi, Jaipur, Ajmer, Jodhpur ,Sirohi (Area 4278 Ha. Production .20 Lac MT)
The aroma and tangy flavour of spices from Rajasthan are gaining popularity in Asia and Europe. The chilli of Jodhpur is adding flavour and colour the European cuisine. The share of the state in seed spices is quite significant, with coverage of more than 21.69% of area and 10.65% production of the country, In terms of national production, the spices State of India contributes 21% of coriander, 40 % of cumin, 45 % of fenugreek and 24 % of Fennel. Besides this, the State has sizable production of garlic, chilli, fennel and ajwain.
- Cumin - Jodhpur, Barmer, Jalore, Nagaur, Jaisalmer (Area 609719 Ha. Production 3.19Lac MT)
- Garlic - Jhalawar, Kota, Baran, Pratapgarh, Chittorgarh (Area 87663 Ha. Production 5.17 Lac MT)
- Coriander - Jhalawar, Kota, Baran, Chittor (Area 124286 Ha. Production 1.83 Lac MT)
- Fenugreek- Bikaner, Jodhpur, Sikar, Churu, Nagaur, Jhunjhunu, Pratapgarh (Area 90469 Ha. Production 1.09 Lac MT)
- Fennel-Nagaur, Sirohi, Pali ,Jodhpur,S.Madhopur, Dausa (Area 30814Ha. Production 0.34 Lac MT)
- Ajwain - Chittor,Bhilwara,Kota,Rajsamand (Area 12475 Ha. Production 0.75Lac MT)
- Chilli - S.Madhopur, Jaipur, Jalore ,Jodhpur (Area 6603 Ha. Production 0.11 Lac MT)
Medicinal and Aromatic plants
Among the medicinal & aromatic plants grown in Rajasthan, Isabgol, Sonamukhi, Ashwaganda & Mehndi are important crops, The climatic condition of state is favoring the natural growth of Sonamuhi and Aswagandha. Sailent features of the medicinal & aromatic plants produced in Rajasthan are national pride being a largest producer of Isabgol and Henna, Superior quality of Sonamukhi and Aswagandha and high sennocide content in Sonamukhi produced in State.
- Isabgol - Barmer, Jalore, Nagaur, Jaisalmer, Churu ,Bikaner
- Mehandi - Pali, Jodhpur
- Sonamukhi - Jodhpur , Pali, Jaisalmer
- Kalaungi – Jhalawar, Pratapgarh
- Aloe vera - Churu, Bikaner
Known the world -over for Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti"s Dargah, Ajmer has also fascinated the world with the fragrance of its roses, Processable flower production of rose from Pushkar in Ajmer and Haldi Ghati in Chittorgarh throws open tremendous scope for making rose scent, rose water, gulkand and dry petals for export. Besides, some other valuable flowers like Gerbera and Dutch Roses also growing successfully under green house conditions.
- Rose - Ajmer, Jaipur, Nagaur, Bundi, Jodhpur,
- Merigold - Jaipur, Jodhpur, Ajmer